Non-verbal Signals of Secondary Emotions: Identifying Guilt, Shame and Pride
The present article aims to present the non-verbal indicators of guilt, shame and disgust – secondary emotions, – revealed in the last decades by psychological science. A non-verbal signal can include items such as facial expressions, head position, and self-directed behaviors. Secondary emotions such as guilt, shame and pride and their described non-verbal cues can be an important source of information in investigations that involve analysis of court hearings in court depositions providing subsidies for strategic decision-making and for handling the deposition investigation process. This article contains a narrative review that describes three secondary emotions and their non-verbal indicators. Non-verbal indicators of secondary emotions are presented according to the conceptualization of the facial action coding system (FACS) and technical recommendations referenced by the specialized literature. Guilt, shame and pride exhibit non-verbal, objective and distinct indicators of expressiveness.
Joaquim, RM. Neuropsicologia forense e detecção de mentiras: enfrentando os crimes contra a administração da justiça. 1. ed. São Paulo: Pearson Clinical Brasil, 2019. v. 1. 416 p. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.129.1.74
De Paulo B. Lindsay, J. J. Malone, B. E. Muhlenbruck, L. Charlton, K. Cooper, H. Cues to deception. Psychological Bulletin Copyright 2003 by the American Psychological Association, (2003) Vol. 129, No. 1, 74–118
Ekman P. Telling Lies: clues to deceit in the marketplace, politics, and marriage. Nova York. W.W.W Norton & Company (2002)
Mann S, Vrij A, Bull R. Suspects, lies, and videotape: An analysis of authentic high-stake liars. Law and Human Behavior, (2002). 26(3), 365–376. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1015332606792
Ekman P. What Scientists Who Study Emotion Agree About. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 11(1), (2016). 31-34. https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691615596992
Gazzaniga M, Heatherton T, Halpern D. Ciência Psicológica). 5º Ed. – Artmed (2018) Porto Alegre – RS.
Barrett LF, Mesquita B, Ochsner KN, Gross JJ. The experience of emotion. Annual Review of Psychology, (2007) 58, 373-403. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.58.110405.085709
Hultz S, Opie C, Atkinson Q. Evolução gradual da socialidade estável em primatas. Nature, (2011) 479, 219–222. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature10601
Pinker S. The better angels of our nature: the decline of violence in history and it causes. London, Pinguin UK (2011).
Boyd R, Richerson PJ. Culture and the evolution of human cooperation. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, (2009) 364(1533), 3281–3288. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2009.0134
Ekman P, Friesen W. Facial Action Coding System: A Technique for the Measurement of Facial Movement. Consulting Psychologists Press (1978) Palo Alto https://doi.org/10.2307/1131351
Lewis M, Alessandri SM, Sullivan MW. Differences in shame and pride as a function of children's gender and task difficulty. Child Dev. (1992); 63:630–638. https://doi.org/10.2307/1131351
Keltner D. Signs of appeasement: Evidence for the distinct displays of embarrassment, amusement, and shame. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, (1995). 68(3), 441–454. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2061
Tracy JL, Robins RW. Show your pride: evidence for a discrete emotion expression. Psychol Sci. (2004) Mar;15(3):194-7. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0956-7976.2004.01503008.x
Tracy JL, Robins RW, Schriber RA. Development of a FACS verified set of basic and self-conscious emotion expressions. Emotion, (2009). 9(4), 554. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0015766
Jason M, Tracy JL, Azim FS. Status signals: Adaptive benefits of displaying and observing the nonverbal expressions of pride and shame, Cognition and Emotion, (2012) 26:3, 390-406. https://doi.org/10.1080/02699931.2011.645281
Julle-Danière E, Whitehouse J, Mielke A, Vrij A. Gustafsson, E. Micheletta, J. Waller, B. M. Are there non-verbal signals of guilt? PLoS One. 2020 Apr 24;15(4):e0231756. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0231756
Tracy JL, Robins RW, Lagattuta KH. Can children recognize pride? Emotion. (2005) Sep;5(3):251-7. https://doi.org/10.1037/1528-35220.127.116.11
Zaslav MR. Shame-related states of mind in psychotherapy. The Journal of psychotherapy practice and research (1998)
Tracy JL, Matsumoto D. The spontaneous expression of pride and shame: Evidence for biologically innate nonverbal displays. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, (2008) 105(33),11655–11660. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0802686105
Vaish A. The prosocial functions of early social emotions: the case of guilt. Current opinion in psychology (2018) 20: 25–29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2017.08.008
Knapp ML, HALL JA. A comunicação não verbal na interação humana.JSN Editora (1999) São Paulo.
Amodio DM, Devine PG, Harmon-Jones E. A dynamic model of guilt implications for motivation and self-regulation in the context of prejudice. Psychological Science (2007) 18: 524–530. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.01933.x
Weisman MR. Showing remorse: Law and the social control of emotion: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. (2014)
Izard CE. Human emotions. New-York: Plenum Press (1977). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4899-2209-0
Keltner D, Buswell BN, Young R. Appeasement in human emotion, personality, and social practice. Aggress Behav (1997) 23:359–374. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1098-2337(1997)23:5<359::AID-AB5>3.0.CO;2-D
Fessler DMT. In The Self-Conscious Emotions: Theory and Research, eds Tracy JL, Robins RW, Tangney JP (Guilford, New York) (2007) pp 174–193.
Darwin C. A expressão das emoções no homem e nos animais. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras. (2000). (Trabalho original publicado em 1872).
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 Brazilian Journal of Forensic Sciences, Medical Law and Bioethics
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.