Proposal for Estimating the Biological Profile by Analysis of the Second Cervical Vertebral
Keywords:Second cervical vertebra, Biological profile, Sex estimation, Age, Height, Forensic anthropology
Forensic anthropology deals with criminal examination of bones, charred corpses and bodies in an advanced putrefactive state, being crucial in this analysis the definition of the biological profile (BP) with the estimation of sex, age, stature and ancestry. The elements of greatest technical precision in these estimations are the joint examination of the bones of the hip, skull and limbs, which are not always available, which makes it important to study isolated parts in the BP estimate. The second cervical vertebra (C2) is an option, as it resists decomposition and is usually present in most anthropological surveys. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 71 dry C2 measures investigated at the Instituto Médico Legal André Roquette, seeking to correlate 15 vertebral measures, mass and 4 qualitative parameters with the BP. Vertebral mass and most measurements were significantly higher in men. Based on some measures, one equation was created to estimate sex and three to estimate height. There was no association between the parameters evaluated with age and ancestry, but osteophytes were observed predominantly above age 40 years. The results indicate potential practical application in our environment. However, further studies are needed to validate the presented equations.
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