Proposal for Estimating the Biological Profile by Analysis of the Second Cervical Vertebral


  • Leonardo Santos Bordoni Instituto Médico Legal André Roquette, Belo Horizonte (MG), Brasil /Faculdade da Saúde e Ecologia Humana, Vespasiano (MG), Brasil / Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Ouro Preto (MG), Brasil / Faculdade de Medicina de Barbacena, Barbacena (MG), Brasil
  • Camila Ferreira Bomtempo Faculdade da Saúde e Ecologia Humana, Vespasiano (MG), Brasil
  • Juliana Aguiar Cavalcante Diniz Faculdade da Saúde e Ecologia Humana, Vespasiano (MG), Brasil
  • Stephanie Mara Fernandes Pádua Faculdade da Saúde e Ecologia Humana, Vespasiano (MG), Brasil
  • Tatiana Borges Quadros Faculdade da Saúde e Ecologia Humana, Vespasiano (MG), Brasil
  • Polyanna Helena Coelho Bordoni a Instituto Médico Legal André Roquette, Belo Horizonte (MG), Brasil



Second cervical vertebra, Biological profile, Sex estimation, Age, Height, Forensic anthropology


Forensic anthropology deals with criminal examination of bones, charred corpses and bodies in an advanced putrefactive state, being crucial in this analysis the definition of the biological profile (BP) with the estimation of sex, age, stature and ancestry. The elements of greatest technical precision in these estimations are the joint examination of the bones of the hip, skull and limbs, which are not always available, which makes it important to study isolated parts in the BP estimate. The second cervical vertebra (C2) is an option, as it resists decomposition and is usually present in most anthropological surveys. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 71 dry C2 measures investigated at the Instituto Médico Legal André Roquette, seeking to correlate 15 vertebral measures, mass and 4 qualitative parameters with the BP. Vertebral mass and most measurements were significantly higher in men. Based on some measures, one equation was created to estimate sex and three to estimate height. There was no association between the parameters evaluated with age and ancestry, but osteophytes were observed predominantly above age 40 years. The results indicate potential practical application in our environment. However, further studies are needed to validate the presented equations.


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How to Cite

Santos Bordoni, L., Ferreira Bomtempo, C. ., Aguiar Cavalcante Diniz, J., Fernandes Pádua, S. M., Borges Quadros, T., & Coelho Bordoni, P. H. (2021). Proposal for Estimating the Biological Profile by Analysis of the Second Cervical Vertebral. Brazilian Journal of Forensic Sciences, Medical Law and Bioethics, 10(3), 423–440.



Original Article