Sexual Dimorphism in Cranial Tomography and Cranial Volume

Authors

  • Nívia Cristina Duran Gallassi Faculdade de Odontologia de Piracicaba, Ciências da Saúde e Odontologia Infantil, Piracicaba, SP, Brasil
  • Stéfany De Lima Gomes Faculdade De Odontologia De Piracicaba
  • Viviane Ulbricht Faculdade de Odontologia de Piracicaba, Biociências Infantil, Piracicaba,SP, Brasil
  • Diana Maria Souza Couto Faculdade de Odontologia de Piracicaba, Ciências da Saúde e Odontologia Infantil, Piracicaba, SP, Brasil
  • João Sarmento Pereira Neto Faculdade de Odontologia de Piracicaba, Ciências da Saúde e Odontologia Infantil, Piracicaba, SP, Brasil
  • Luiz Francesquini Júnior Faculdade de Odontologia de Piracicaba, Ciências da Saúde e Odontologia Infantil, Piracicaba, SP, Brasil

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.17063/bjfs10(3)y2021387-400

Keywords:

Sex Characteristics, Forensic Antropology, Human Identification, Computed Tomography

Abstract

We sought to verify the sexual dimorphism in linear measurements in Computed Tomography (CT) and volumetric (of neurocranium). It also aimed to generate a logistic regression model to estimate sex. After approval by CEP CAAE n ° 54171916.0.0000.5418, the researcher's calibration was started, following the Intraclass Correlation analysis (ICC) according to Azklo and Nieto, in 2000. They were measured with the OnDemand3D® software and the measures: Glabela-Metalambda; Bregma-Básio and Eurio-Eurio (112 CT of men and 87 CT of women aged 22 to 80 years from the Osteological and Tomographic Biobank) and in the skulls from which the CTs were obtained, the internal volume of the neurocranium was determined using soybean seeds. In addition to the calculation of the Horizontal Cephalic Index and the Lateral Cephalic Index. After statistical analysis, it was found that all linear measurements on CTs and the assessment of intra-neurocranial volume are dimorphic. A logistic regression model called SEX 2019 = [-18.087+ (5.937xVC) + (- 0.076x (Br-Ba))] was also created. It was found that the method results in 80.4% sensitivity, 66.7% specificity and 74.4% accuracy, proving to be effective in predicting sex. The regression model obtained can be used as an auxiliary method and allows the estimation of sex.

References

Daruge E, Daruge Júnior E, Francesquini Júnior L. Tratado de Odontologia Legal e Deontologia. 2. Ed. Rio de Janeiro: Guanabara Koogan; 2019.

Vanrell JP Odontologia Legal e Antropologia Forense. 3ed. Rio de Janeiro: Guanabara Koogan, 2019.

Bezerra AFC, Galvão PVM, Silva JMN, Fontes Filho ARG, Cavalcanti LBH, Souza EHA. Estimativa da estatura humana através de análise dental: aplicação do método de Carrea e do modificado por Cavalcanti. Rev. Bras Odontol. Leg. RBOL. 2017;1(1):40-7. https://doi.org/10.21117/rbol.v5i1.145

The International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL). Disaster Victim Identification Guide. 2014. Disponível em: http://www.interpol.int/INTERPOL-expertise/Forensics/DVI-Pages/DVI-guide

Silva RF, Paranhos LR, Martins EC, Fernandes MM, Daruge E Jr. Associação de duas técnicas de análise radiográfica do seio frontal para identificação humana. Rev. Sul-Bras Odontol. 2009; 6(3); 310-315.

Sangvichien S, Boonkaew K, Chuncharunee A, Komoltri C, Piyawinitwong S, Wongsawut A, et al. Sex determination in thai skull by using craniometry: multiple logistic regression analysis. Siriraj Med J. 2007;59(5):216-21.

Gonzalez PN, Bernal V, Perez SI. Analysis of sexual dimorphism of craniofacial traits using geometric morphometric techniques. Int J Osteoarcheol 2009;21(1): 82-91. https://doi.org/10.1002/oa.1109

Naikmansur VG, Shrisvastava R, Mutalik S. Determination of sex in South indians and immigrant tibetans from cephalometric analysis and discriminant functions. Forensic Sci Int 2010;197(1-3):122.e1–122.e6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2009.12.052

Suazo GIC, Zavando MDA. Age effect in the morphological traits performance for sex determination in human skulls and mandibles. Int. J. Morphol. 2012;30(1):296-301.

Rathburn TA, Buikstra JE. Human identification: Case studies in forensic anthropology. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas Publisher, 1984.

Pereira IMR, Barros Filho ADA, Alvares BR, Palomari ET, Nanni L. Radiological determination of cranial size and index by measurement of skull diameters in a population of children in Brazil. Radiologia Brasileira. 2008;41(4):229-34. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-39842008000400006

Manjunath KY. Estimation of cranial volume in dissecting room cadavers. J Anat Soc India. 2002;51:168–172.

Ezejindu DN, Chinweife KC, Ihentuge CJ, Uloleme GC. Studies of cranial capacity between the ages of 14–20 years of Ogidi people of Anambra state, Nigeria. J. Dent and Med Sci. 2013;8(2):54-9.

Ilayperuma I. Cranial capacity in an adult Sri Lankan population: Sexual dimorphism and ethnic diversity. Int J Morphol. 2011; 29(2):479-84.

Mozzo P, Procacci C, Tacconi A, Martini PT, Andreis IA. A new volumetric CT machine for dental imaging based on the cone-beam technique: preliminary results. Eur Radiol. 1998;8(9):1558-64. https://doi.org/10.1007/s003300050586

See C, Bormann K, Schumann P, Goetz F, Gellrich N, Rucker M. Forensic imaging of projectiles using cone-beam computed tomography. Forensic Sci Int. 2009; 190(1-3): 38– 41. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2009.05.009

Kharoshah MAA, Almadani O, Ghaleb SS, Zaki MK, Fattah YAA. Sexual dimorphism of the mandible in a modern Egyptian population. Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine. 2010;17(4):213–15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jflm.2010.02.005

Garib DG, Raymundo Jr R, Raymundo MV, Raymundo DV, Ferreira SN. Tomografia computadorizada de feixe cônico (cone beam): entendendo este novo método de diagnóstico por imagem com promissora aplicabilidade na Ortodontia. R Dental Press Ortodon Ortop Facial Maringá. 2007;12(2):139-56. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1415-54192007000200018

Szklo R, Nieto FJ. Epidemiology Beyond the Basis. Aspen Publications, 2000.

Sadakat Ali, AP Sinha, SL Jethani, RK Rohatgi, K Anamika. Study of Cranial Capacity of Adult North Indian Human Skulls & its Sexual Dimorphism. International Journal of Scientifi c Study. 2014;1(5):29-31.

Magalhães LV, Pacheco KTS, Carvalho KS. O potencial da Odontologia Legal para a identificação humana das ossadas do Depto. Médico Legal de Vitória-ES. Revista Brasil. Odonto. Legal. 2015;2(2):5-19. https://doi.org/10.21117/rbol.v2i2.27

Gennari PV, Carneiro EFV. O Ministério Público em Busca de Pessoas Desaparecidas: A Função Social dos Ossuários Perpétuos em Cemitérios Públicos. Revista Brasileira de Direito Urbanístico (RBDU). 2016 a;2:223-46.

Gennari PV, Carneiro EFC. O Ministério Público em busca de pessoas desaparecidas: desaparecimentos forçados por omissão do Estado. Revista Liberdades. 2016; 22:39-55.

Carneiro EFC, Gennari PV. Ministério público em busca de pessoas desaparecidas: a necessidade da identificação criminal de vítimas de homicídio via codis-combined DNA index system. Revista jurídica ESMP-SP. 2019;16(2): 82-107.

Marques J, Aras W. Odontologia Legal: Tratado de perícias forenses. 1ed. São Paulo: Editora Leud, 2017.

Williams B.A., Rogers T. Evaluating the accuracy and precision of cranial morphological traits for sex determination. J. Forensic Sci. 2006; 51(4): 729–735. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1556-4029.2006.00177.x

Patil KR, Modi RN. Determination of sex by discriminant function analysis and stature by regression analysis: a lateral cephalometric study. Forensic Sci. Int. 2005;147(2–3):175-80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2004.09.071

Lagravère MO, Major PW. Proposed reference point for 3-dimensional cephalometric analysis with cone-beam computerized tomography. Am. J. Orthod. Dentofacial Orthop. 2005;128(5):657-60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajodo.2005.07.003

Waitzman AA, Posnick JC, Armstrong DC, Pron GE. Craniofacial skeletal measurements based on computed tomography: part II. Normal values and growth trends Cleft Palate-Cran. J. 1992;29(2):118-28. https://doi.org/10.1597/15451569_1992_029_0118_csmboc_2.3.co_2

Ramsthaler F, Kettner M, Gehl A, Verhoff MA. Digital forensic osteology: morphological sexing of skeletal remains using volume-rendered cranial CT scans. Forensic Sci. Int. 2010;195(1-3):148-52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2009.12.010

Adel R, Ahmed HM, Hassan AO, Abdelgawad EA. Assesment of Craniometric Sexual Dimorphism Using Multidetector Computed Tomographic Imaging in a Sample of Egyption Population. AM J Forensic Med Pathol. 2018;40(1):19-26. 10.1097/PAF.0000000000000439

Isaza J, Días CA, Bedoya JF, Monsalve T, Botella MC. Assesment of Sex from endocranial cavity using volume-rendered CT scans in a sample from Medellín, Colombia. Forensic Science International. 2014;234:186.e1-186.e10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2013.10.023

Madadin M, Menezes RG, Dhafeeri OA, Kharoshah MA, Ibrahim RA, Nagesh KR, Ramadan SU. Evaluation of the mastoid triangle for determining sexual dimorphism: A Saudi population based study. Forensic Science International. 2015;254:244.e1-244.e4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2015.06.019

Gohiya VK, Shrivatava S, Gohiya S. Estimation of cranial capacity in 20-25 year old population of Madhya Pradesh, a state of India. Int. J. Morphol. 2010;28(4):1211-4.

Maina MB, Shapu YC, Garba SH, Muhammad MA, Garba AM, Yaro AU, Omoniyi ON. Assessments of cranial capacities in a North-Eastern Adult Nigerian Population. Jornal of Applied Sciences. 2011;11(14):2662-5. https://doi.org/10.3923/jas.2011.2662.2665

Published

2021-06-14

How to Cite

Duran Gallassi, N. C., Stéfany De Lima Gomes, Ulbricht, V., Souza Couto, D. M., Pereira Neto, J. S., & Francesquini Júnior, L. (2021). Sexual Dimorphism in Cranial Tomography and Cranial Volume. Brazilian Journal of Forensic Sciences, Medical Law and Bioethics, 10(3), 387–400. https://doi.org/10.17063/bjfs10(3)y2021387-400

Issue

Section

Original Article